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What is a CNC Laser Cutting Machine and How Does it Work?

CNC machining has revolutionized the manufacturing industry, bringing automation, error reduction, and time savings. Among the machines used in CNC machining is the CNC laser cutter. In this article, we will discuss the functioning of a CNC lase cutting machine. Explore types of laser cutting machines.

What is CNC Laser Cutting Machine?

A CNC laser cutting machine is a computer-controlled cutting tool that utilizes a laser beam to cut metal, wood, and plastic. The movement of the laser beam on the machine is directed by computer software known as CNC or computer numerical control. Through the contact laser cutting process, the focused laser beam effectively melts, vaporizes, or burns through the cut material.

Diagram of CNC Laser Cutting Machine:

Components of a CNC Laser Cutting machine:

A CNC laser cutting machine has three components: the laser, the cutting head, and the CNC controller.

  • The production of a powered laser beam is facilitated by lasers in different forms, like CO2 lasers, fiber lasers, and neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd; YAG) lasers.
  • The cutting head, a device component, is responsible for directing the laser beam onto the material that needs to be cut. Additionally, it has a nozzle that blows gas onto the backing material to facilitate cutting.
  • The “brain” of the machine is known as the CNC controller. It plays a role in directing the movement of both the cutting head and the laser beam.

Working of Laser Cutting Machine:

  •  Firstly, you must use computer-aided design (CAD) software to create the desired shape or pattern. Then, computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) software converts this design into a code that the machine can understand.
  • Next, you prepare the material that will be cut, such as metal sheets, wood, acrylic, or other materials. These are placed in the work area of the CNC laser cutting machine.
  • You start the CNC machine once everything is set up and ready to go. The focused laser beam from the machine quickly heats up. Melts. Vaporizes the surface of the material. Following instructions provided by CNC programming, the high-energy laser moves along a predetermined path. Cut through the material.
  • As the laser beam progresses along its path, it melts the material it comes into contact with. This results in a desired shape or pattern being formed as any vaporized material escapes from its path.
  • It’s important to note that the laser generates significant heat during this cutting process. Typically, cooling methods, like water or air jets, are employed to prevent the material from getting too hot and assist in solidification.
  • Once the cutting is complete, the cut parts are examined for precision and quality. The intended design is evaluated for any flaws or deviations, and any modifications that are required are performed.

CNC machining has revolutionized the manufacturing industry, bringing automation, error reduction, and time savings. Among the machines used in CNC machining is the CNC laser cutter. In this article, we will discuss the functioning of a CNC lase cutting machine. Explore types of laser cutting machines.

Types of CNC Laser Cutting Machines:

Laser cutting machines are used based on the laser medium’s condition (liquid or gas) and its components (such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, etc.). Laser cutting machines come in three primary types:

  •  CNC CO2 laser cutter :

An electric current is passed through a tube containing a mixture of carbon dioxide, hydrogen, nitrogen, and helium in a CO2 laser. Although the CO2 laser can cut through thin metal sheets, it is most frequently used for woodworking and engraving. 

  •  CNC crystal laser cutter : 

Crystals such as neodymium-doped yttrium ortho-vanadate and neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet form the laser beam in CNC crystal laser cutting equipment, as the name suggests. Due to the strong laser beam power, thick materials are frequently cut with CNC crystal laser cutting machines. These laser-cutting equipment work effectively with various materials, from wood to metal to plastic to glass. 

  • CNC fiber laser cutter:

CNC fiber laser cutting is one of the newest and most advanced tools. This technology uses a series of diodes to form the laser beam, which is then sent via a fiber optic connection. When cutting materials less than 5 mm thick, fiber laser cutting is significantly faster and a cleaner technique. Any material can be sliced with this method. However, silver metal requires special handling. Fibre lasers, which are known for their versatility, can be used on a variety of materials, including glass, wood, plastic, and metal alloys. 

Rajesh Machines mainly offers two series of laser machines;

CNC Laser Cutting Machine Applications:

The following industries use CNC laser cutter machines:

  • In the automobile industry, they are used to cut sheet metal for car bodywork and other parts.
  • In the aerospace sector, they cut parts for aircraft engines and other items.
  • The jewelry industry utilizes them to create designs from metals like gold and silver.
  • They also play a role in the signs sector by cutting lettering and logos from materials.

For information about laser-cutting machine applications, you can read this blog post;

What is a laser cutting machine?

Due to technological advancements, modern manufacturing heavily relies on CNC laser cutting machines as they offer enhanced effectiveness, precision, and versatility. If you’re searching for a CNC laser cutting machine for your needs and industry, Rajesh Machines provides a range of options.

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